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Explore the Research of CIBS2024

Project AR-42 graphix


Development of Reduced-order System Models for Next Generation Comfort Cooling Equipment
  • Project Team: Students: Shahzad Yousaf, Mohsin Tanveer; Faculty: Craig R. Bradshaw, Rushikesh Kamalapurkar, Omer San
  • Project Number: AR-42
  • Goals: This project aims to develop reduced order models for variable speed unitary equipment to support development of equipment maps, building energy models, and model-predictive optimal control.
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This project will deliver: a reduced-order black-box model, a reduced-order gray-box model, equipment test data, and a high-fidelity dynamic equipment model. 
  • Scholarship(s): Yousef, S., Bradsaw, C. R., Kamalapurkar, R., & San, O. (2022). "Physics Informed Machine Learning Based Reduced Order Model of Unitary Equipment”. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Paper 2417;
    Yousaf, S., Bradshaw, C. R., Kamalapurkar, R., & San, O. (2023). “Investigating critical model input features for unitary air conditioning equipment”. Energy and Buildings, 284, 112823
Project 22-03-02 graphic
Physics-Based Charge Models for Low-GWP Refrigerants in Heat Pump Applications
  • Project Team: Students:Amr Abdelmoneim, Abraham Lee: Faculty: Christian Bach, Craig R. Bradshaw
  • Project Number: 22-03-02
  • Goals: Project aims to increase fin-tube heat exchanger charge models’ prediction accuracy to better than 10% for low-GWP refrigerants through an experimentally validated void fraction model
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This project will deliver: Refrigerant charge data set for a member selected subset of heat exchangers, and void-fraction models validated for select heat exchangers and refrigerants
  • Scholarships: Lee, A. J., C. K. Bach, C. R. Bradshaw (2023). An Experimental Data-Driven Charge Model for Round-Tube-Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers Using Low-GWP Refrigerants. Submitted to JIJR on 03/07/2023; Lee, A. J., C. K. Bach, C. R. Bradshaw (2023). Development of Multi-Objective Optimization Framework for Reducing Refrigerant Charge and Increasing Cooling Capacity of a Heat Pump. Submitted to JIJR on 03/12/2023.


OCAST AR-37 graphic
Enabling Thermal Energy Storage to Accommodate Oklahoma Wind Energy- TriCoil as Cost Effective Means for Residential System Integration
  • Project Team: Student: Khaled I. Alghamdi;                                        Faculty: Christian K. Bach, Jeffrey D. Spitler
  • Project Number: OCAST AR37-22
  • Goals: This project will evaluate a novel three-fluid fin-and-tube heat exchanger (TriCoil™) for cost effective integration of thermal energy storage with conventional air conditioning or heat pump systems
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This project will evaluate technical feasibility through a prototype system, and economic viability through in-depth coupled building and thermal storage simulation study
  • Scholarship(s): Alghamdi, K. I., Bach, C. K., Spitler, J. D., & Istiaque, F., 2023. Modeling, Simulating, and Validating a Novel Three-Fluid Heat Exchanger (Tricoil™) for a Residential Heating and Air-Conditioning System Integrating Water-Based Thermal Energy Storage. Available at SSRN:; Alghamdi, K. I., Bach, C. K., & Spitler, J. D., 2022. Water-Based Thermal Energy Storage for Heating and Air-Conditioning Applications in Residential Buildings: Review and Preliminary Study. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Paper 2345.


Project 23-01 graphic
Development of a Vapor Injected and Refrigerant Flexible Semi-Empirical Compressor Model
  • Project Team: Student: Amjid Khan; Faculty: Craig R. Bradshaw
  • Project Number: 23-01-2
  • Goals: This project aims to develop a reduced order semi-empirical model for vapor injected compressor that has the potential to predict the performance against variation in refrigerant properties 
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This project will deliver a refrigerant flexible vapor injected compressor model, automation upgrade to compressor load stand, and high-fidelity experimental data for various compressor technologies
  • Scholarships: Khan, A., Bradshaw, C. R., (2022). “Quantitative Comparison of the Performance of Vapor Compression Cycles with Various Means of Compressor Flooding”, International Compressor Engineering Conference,; Amjid Khan, Craig Bradshaw (2023), “Quantitative Comparison of the Performance of Vapor Compression Cycles with Compressor Vapor or Liquid Injection”, International journal of refrigeration. (Under Review)


Project 23-01 graphic


Compressor Technology Evaluation for Heat Pumps using Low-GWP Working Fluids
  • Project Team: Student: Mohsin Tanveer;                        Faculty: Craig R. Bradshaw
  • Project Number: 23-02-2
  • Goals: This project aims to address low-GWP refrigerants and decarburization challenges by tackling the following research question, What makes a good heat pump compressor?" 
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This project will deliver a final code of scaling analysis, geometry optimization, and scroll, rotary, and spool compressors, as well as a dataset of validation information for scroll and rotary compressors
  • Scholarship: Tanveer, M. M., & Bradshaw, C. R. (2020). Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of various positive-displacement compressor modeling platforms. International Journal of Refrigeration119,48-63., Tanveer, M. M., & Bradshaw, C. R. (2021). Performance evaluation of low GWP refrigerants in 1-100 ton scroll compressors. International Journal of Refrigeration, 129, 317-331., Tanveer, M. M., Bradshaw, C. R., Ding, X., & Ziviani, D. (2022). Mechanistic chamber models: A review of geometry, mass flow, valve, and heat transfer sub-models. International Journal of Refrigeration., Tanveer, Tanveer, M. Mohsin, and Craig R. Bradshaw. “Pseudo-Optimum Geometries for 1-100 Ton Spool Compressors with Low-GWP Refrigerants." International Journal of Refrigeration (accepted).
23-06 Project summary graphic
Benefits of Secondary Loop Systems:  Thermal Storage and Demand Response
  • Project Team: Students: Pouria Moghimi;                        Faculty: Jeffrey D. Spitler, Christian Bach
  • Project Number: 23-06-2
  • Goals: Develop experimental testbed and validated simulation model of buried thermal energy storage tanks that can be installed with a backhoe-mounted augur
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This year, the anticipated outcomes are a field test of a buried TES tank, improved models and further insight into techno-economic feasibility
  • Scholarship: N/A yet
23-07 Project summary graphic
Solar-powered ultra-low-GWP heat pumps with DC compressors and TES
  • Project Team: Students:Gabriel Parker;                           Faculty: Jeffrey D. Spitler, Craig R. Bradshaw, Ardeshir Moftakhari
  • Project Number: 23-07-2
  • Goals: Develop innovative system configurations, appropriate for use in a near zero-energy house, that make use of thermal energy storage, air-to-water heat pumps with alternative refrigerants, and grid or local solar photovoltaic power
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This year, the anticipated outcomes are experimental testing of the components, implementation of a DC compressor in our air-to-water heat pump, along with replacing the refrigerant with R1234yf
  • Scholarship: N/A yet
figure depicting plans for reversing valves in a low tempurature heat pump
Reversing Valve Loss and Leakage Models for Low Temperature Heat Pumps
  • Project Team: Students:Dipa Saha, Julfikar Ali, Jacob Taylor;                           Faculty: Prem Bikkina, Ardeshir Moftakhari
  • Project Number: 24-01
  • Goals: This project provides data for reversing valves for low-GWP refrigerants for cold climate heat pumps and semi-empirical models for pressure drop, heat loss, and leakage
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This project delivers a database of experimental reversing valve performance as well as models to be used in members simulation tools
  • Scholarship: N/A yet
Extreme testing of our novel nucleate boiling phenomena using water. This Project will employ a similar study with refrigerants.
Development of Wetting and Non-Wetting Surfaces for Improved Heat Transfer Applications
  • Project Team: Students:Md Sazzadul Islam Sajol;                           Faculty: Christian Bach, Craig R. Bradshaw
  • Project Number: 24-04
  • Goals: Develop, characterize, and test refrigerant-philic and -phobic surfaces, to achieve enhanced heat transfer efficiency in refrigeration systems by preventing and promoting bubble nucleation on heating and boiling surfaces, respectively
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: High-thermal conductivity low surface tension refrigerant-philic and -phobic surfaces will be developed and tested for improved heat transfer applications ranging from thermal power plants to refrigeration
  • Scholarship: N/A yet
Refrigerant-To-Water Heat Exchangers in Hydronic Heat Pump Applications
Physics-Based Models for Performance Analysis of Refrigerant-To-Water Heat Exchangers in Hydronic Heat Pump Applications
  • Project Team: Students:Saqib Ayuob;                           Faculty: Ardeshir Moftakhari,Craig R. Bradshaw, Christian Bach
  • Project Number: 24-06
  • Goals: Project aims to provide new performance data and models for performance evaluation of refrigerant-to-water heat exchangers with low-GWP refrigerants for hydronic heat pump applications
  • Outcomes/Deliverables: This project will deliver: (1) physics-based models for performance analysis of refrigerant-to-water heat exchangers, and (2) test data for refrigerant-to-water heat exchangers with low-GWP refrigerants
  • Scholarship: N/A yet

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